Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the separation of CO2 from industrial exhausts coupled with the permanent geological storage of that carbon (applied, e.g., on cement, steel, power plants, chemical production facilities, etc.). When the origin of the CO2 is exclusively fossil or geological carbon (e.g., fossil fuels, limestone), then this action is emission reduction, not carbon removal. Carbon dioxide removal and CCS are distinct, but some carbon dioxide removal methods (e.g., direct air capture) may share the same capture processes or long-term storage infrastructure used for conventional CCS.