Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) is part of a broader set of ‘carbon recycling’ applications, describing the reuse of captured carbon either directly (e.g., to fertilise greenhouses, in beverages) or as an ingredient in new products (e.g., concrete, fuels, chemicals). CCU can displace additional fossil fuel use, thereby reducing emissions. If the carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stays in a closed loop over many decades or centuries (e.g. when incorporated into cementitious building materials), the method may be considered removal. All other cases of CCU, in which carbon is rapidly (re-)released to the atmosphere, only delay (re-)emissions. As most captured carbon is not durably stored, CCU is generally not considered removal.