A reversal occurs when stored carbon escapes and is released back into the atmosphere, reducing or nullifying the climate benefit that has been delivered by the initial instance of removal. Reversals can be non-anthropogenic (“acts of God”, natural disasters such as wildfires) or anthropogenic (caused by human misconduct or negligence, such as illegal logging). The “reversal risk” is an estimate of the expected magnitude and timing of reversals. Note that climate change itself is changing the risk of non-anthropogenic reversals in some cases, e.g., elevated frequency or severity of forest fires or extreme weather events may increase reversal risk in some regions. See also “durability” and “permanence”.